I am coming back to ask about literature use and literature use in my own experience, and writing a journal article, and getting stuck when I try to draft from the top – stuck when I get diverted by the literature …
When I was a senior school student of English Literature (circa 1961/2), one insight stood out for me – irony, in Shelley’s Ozymandias.
As far as I can remember, that was the first time my perception of learning, in Eng Lit, went beyond ‘learning the facts’.
Yes, I had learnt that ‘metaphor’ is a form of speech, and is when one thing is claimed to be another, as in ‘The moon was a ghostly galleon …’; compared with simile which used ‘as’ or ‘like’ to preface the claim.
I have met up again with ‘metaphor’, and now much later. Jack Mezirow speaks of metaphor being an indicator of the kind of reflective work/thinking that conveys the potential to move a person’s meaning perspective (what he calls ‘transformative’), or provides evidence of such a shift (p.219).
Now I am understanding metaphor, and that kind of thinking, to be related to abduction, as distinct from deduction and induction.
The process of comparison, so vital to ‘research’ and working with ‘findings’, to manage lots of data, is part of this older understanding of how an educated person can use language, and so and more ‘creatively’.
In my thesis (1999-2005) I worked some more with Gregory Bateson’s idea of the meta- … meta-cognition, meta-communication, the second-level process of thinking about thinking, communicating about communication etc.
So what is the meta-4? (as per punning) … to help us think and to communicate our thinking …
How important is it? It seems to me that irony, paradox, truth hidden in the meaning of words, is something that will be with me all my life. Whether I can make something more of this understanding is another matter; let alone considering how I make something more of this …
Before I grow much older, I want to try and capture where my thinking is at.
I am engaging with Werner Ulrich’s JRP article from 2006, again, and from the present turn in my hermeneutical spiral.
And Stephen Downes’ inputs about PLEs is paying off here too.
As I read Werner’s comments about the ‘discursive turn’, I am noting
it tends to divert the attention of researchers away from the need to develop new skills of critical argumentation beyond those of quantitative analysis and, at the same time, to revise their notion of professional competence accordingly[dla1] .
[dla1]Connects with my experience of ‘analysis’ eg from Dunn’s policy analysis experience – analysis is not the only way to address the complex; creative synthesis, eg via metaphor, is another (and if my understanding, of all language being metaphoric, holds water, then language is /has always been our next most primary tool for /of inquiry, ie before counting, which involves ‘naming’ quantities!); so I am agreeing with Ulrich on the discursive critique approach, amongst consenting and informed and competent peers, but also going another step to a meta- metaphor – the metaphor of metaphor.
I have also made abductive connections with the reference to Don Quixote and tilting at windmills.
Another point of connection is with
Popper’s empiricist framework of science theory [dla1] apparently did not allow him to consider–and take seriously–sources of critique other than those of experimental science.
[dla1]This is where I understand myself to be still at, as a first default …
I need to remember: no grand theories; and Model II and Model I can be held by the one person, and perhaps held in tension like most living paradoxes.
Is the next grand theory that of paradox?
And earlier still, I noted, and here is the Downes process coming into play,:
Popper agreed with Neurath that there is no such thing as a direct access to empirical phenomena that would not be mediated through theoretical expectations and interpretations[DLA1] .
[DLA1]Any word in language is a theoretical expectation and interpretation .. the map is not the territory.
Hence critique of ‘naming’.
Where did I read about that recently? About a teacher of observation and students and fish .. and making them keep on observing … Not in the apologetics item.
Perhaps one of the Google Reader ones … no apparently
Perhaps one of Giorgio’s links … drawn a blank there too???
In bed I thought that perhaps checking my internet behaviour might point to a recent web page where this might be. Today 21/2 I cannot check that because the desktop is ‘down’. The during the night dreaming was involving staff at UoW FoE, both Sue’s, and confusion about my role there. Now with the desktop down, and other responsibilities of documentation having first priority, the working on that dreaming idea has escaped me.
Found it this morning 21/2 by being patient with Anecdote from Reader. The reference is http://www.anecdote.com.au/archives/2010/02/keeping_richnes.html.
As I draft, and mobilise my knowledge to build an argument, I need to refresh my memory of the written work of others, to effectively cite. I have an impression that so-and-so said such-and-such, but don’t quite know exactly where (ie committing verbatim text and chapter-and-verse to memory is not something well developed in my childhood, excepting by the accompaniment of music). But I do have this memory-remnant, and in regularly revisited reading (eg of the three synoptic gospels, or of Paul’s letters to the churches) I have a greater remembrance of basic context, so I can scan relatively quickly for it, and with concordances or electronic search engines these days I can use ‘key words’ to search efficiently and find.
But not all of the documents I have accessed are in a digital form, yet, and my processing of my reading includes integrating the material into my frame, with its selective attentivenesses, and involves some synthesising re-expression, so that when I go ‘back to the literature’ I cannot always find a sentence, or form of words, that captures the remnant memory impression of how I want to speak of the idea I want to reference.
Going back to the literature, however, and searching again, by reading afresh the detail that has been forgotten, can have its own rewards: sometimes, as today, while re-reading Bateson’s Steps to an Ecology of Mind, I see things in detail that I don’t remember having seen before. The hermeneutical spiral and iterative process, that is ongoing for me, has prepared me so that I can read and understand the same words read before, in a different way now.
The process of developing a habit of capturing reflective thinking as I work with my practice issue has now built a large repository of similar data. The task of drafting, and redrafting to be more concise, has given me some polished resources that can be revisited and sometimes it is there that the precise reference, including a page number, is found.
The process of slowing down my reading, of theoretical and technical writing, by transcribing the material that first caught my attention, which I have used since undergraduate days (1963-6) to assist my memory and understanding has been enhanced recently. Since 1996, I have captured the transcribed material digitally, and since 1998 I have been consciously capturing my contemporaneous reflective thinking about that first read and transcribe, so that now I have another resource of digitised data to search via simple ‘find’ commands (or someday soon, when I have tidied up my archived files of redundant duplication, I might invoke Google to search my desktop).
So, today, while mining the archives, I have found:
To what extent I need to explore disciplines like semantics, linguistics, psychology, xxx, to be able to deal with the issues that arise in my practice, is open, and may depend on whether I can find a group of cooperative inquirers where these disciplinary resources are available, and I can engage with cooperative inquiry with them (May 2004 draft of thesis conclusion)
Ha! I knew it! add to “semantics and linguistics”, ‘syntax’, and maybe even ‘TESOL’, and you have some of the issues that my current practice is throwing up … prepositions, vocabulary and categories and possible ontologies, developing abstractions, literacy, the context of writing, etc
He (the non-native English speaker) wrote
Teachers and administrators are in the heart of this transition since they are directly responsible for implementing ICT in educational curricula.
I jumped to correct the ‘in the heart’ to ‘at the heart’.
And then I stopped, and thought, and commented to myself:
Interesting aspect of prepositional use .. why am I (21st century Australian) reluctant to say ‘in the heart’, as a metaphor for the critical/key role they play in this change?
Such a little thing, these prepositions. Such a minor change? But if we are talking, and thinking, about sociocultural aspects of change, perhaps there is more to it than that.
One of the tools of creative problem solving, useful in group work, including in dispute resolution, involves brainstorming – gathering, unevaluated, ideas associated with the presenting problem, from a group of people. One of the processes of such braintorming is the stimulation of associated words and ideas gathered into such words. Brainstorming is a bit like de Bono’s green hat work, with a dash of yellow hat work.
One of Lewin‘s key suggestions for analysis of non-trivial amounts of ethnographic description required for the kind of qualitative research that is involved in observing and understanding social situations, is something akin to ‘chunking‘: bringing together, under a single term, a constellation of factors, eg ‘gatekeeper’ for the kinds of activities a member of a community/group undertakes to manage the flow of information into and out from the community/group. It involves the development of a metaphor.(‘Topological’ mapping is another of Lewin’s suggestions.) (See Argyris, 1993 Knowledge for Action, p.8-10)
As I was considering the task of deciding categories, for a non-native English speaker, as part of the process of handling a lot of data, I noted
To what extent might recognising commonalities of categories be related to language comprehension? To what extent is what I am doing related to my propensity for convergence by abstraction – going, I think, to a ‘broader’ level of inclusivity? Others’ clouds and clusters work with words.
Now I find that ‘clustering’ is a technical term, with the propensity for use with computers, reminding me that when I was using NUD.IST for my data analysis, I was amused to find this qualitative analysis tool reporting results in a numeric form, as if recurrence was most significant.
In reading someone else’s writing for understanding, for meaning-making there are two sets of understandings and associations of words in play: the reader’s set, and the writer’s set. No wonder miscommunication happens.
In thesis work, when clarity of communication is so vital, no wonder time and precious words are spent on working with some key definitions.
One of my ponderings, as I have worked with non-native English speaking thesis drafters, relates to the extent that vocabulary limits/determines the categories available for the more general abstractions.
In Whetten & Cameron’s Developing Management Skills, (p.64, 4th ed) the aspect of ‘cognitive complexity’, together with greater capacity for tolerating ambiguity, is raised. ‘Individuals with a high tolerance of ambiguity also tend to be more cognitively complex’. The point is made that individuals with greater cognitive complexity tend to have more ‘sense making categories’ than those with a low cognitive complexity. Then they go on to say:
for the most part, in an information-rich environment, tolerance of ambiguity and cognitive complexity are more adaptive than the opposite characteristics.
Donald Schon, in The Reflective Turn, (1991), p.349, talks of ‘fundamental categories’ in terms of ‘ontology’, and the nature of the underlying story that can be developed to inform a researcher, and particularly while they are observing. and indicates that the availability of a range of categories will be one aspect of developing rigor, in Popper’s terms. (The other strand of the development of rigor will lie in the research approach, and the extent to which it is open to others being involved in esting validity). Schon says:
… appropriate rigor in the study of practice will depend on the researcher’s ability to generate, compare and discriminate among multiple representations of practice phenomena – that is, to formulate alternate causal stories of the phenomenon in question and test their competitive resistance to refutation .. the ontology, or fundamental categories, of an underlying story determines the kinds of observations that must be made in order to disconfirm an explanation derived from that story.
One of the problems for a non-native English speaker, in working with qualitative findings, may then arise from their lack of vocabulary in English, or to what extent, when learning English vocabulary to translate their thinking in their native language, they permit some of the nuances of their native language to be lost in choosing a reasonably well-recognised English word.
As a native speaker, one of the significant tools to aid my drafting is a thesaurus – the collection of like but different terms, with their respective nuances.
In one of my challenges of another’s drafting was in a methodology chapter, when they were describing the process of thematic analysis, and said
The tentative themes were then categorized according to the research questions to reduce redundancy. This categorizing technique helped to make salient the points that the interviewees wanted to emphasize. One of the refining techniques in the process of interview analysis was comparing two interviews only to show similarities and differences between two teacher participants so that common themes and contrasts could be clearly identified.
I reacted badly to ‘This categorizing technique helped to make salient the points …’
My first reaction was ‘what does ‘salient’ mean?’ – I don’t know, without checking, what it means, how come this non-native English language speaker is using it?
Then I remembered: when I was working with my thesis drafting, and working intensively with the literature, I found my writing ‘mimicking’ the vocabulary of the writers I was reading. At the time, I shared, with a peer, my complaint with myself over this process, with: “whose thesis/ thinking is this anyway?”
One of my key perceptions of what science teaching (to school certificate learners, undertaking compulsory studies) involved, was that one aspect of the task is to teach vocabulary (eg carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, fibre: what they are; why and how they are different; and, then, what is the value of knowing this – how does it apply to an understanding of good nutrition?).
Similarly, I am seeing thesis studies being about (a) self-directed learning; and (b) functional literacy.
Research, for a learner, is going into the unknown. In the first instance it is an unknown to them, but may well be known by the ‘field’. Consequently, one of the roles of the literature review is to take this novice into the field, and to find out what the field already knows about the phenomenon being explored. Then, if the learner still has an unresolved question, the next step is to design the investigation and take themselves into that new territory, to explore it, and to come back and tell the story (write the report).
The thesis is then the evidence of managing that self-directed study, and developing the functional literacy involved in reporting findings back to the field. Part of the functional literacy task is to learn the privileged vocabulary of the field. Part of the functional literacy task is to learn how to be able to use that vocabulary, accurately and effectively, and to construct a report, for the field (peer review), demonstrating the achievement of certain standards of (a) data collection, (b) data analysis, (c) argument development and maintenance while retaining an appropriately open and ‘critical’ stance of one’s own work as well as the work of others.
My second reaction to ‘make salient’ was with the combination, and the ‘implicit’, for me, in the term ‘make’. I was reading this as a forcing process and by (me as) the analyst.
So, was the combination ‘make salient’ an expression of the non-native English language writer, or was it how a writer in the field of methodology had expressed it, which this learner, like me, was finding infiltrating their own native expressions as they worked at becoming an initiate of the field?
And my reaction to ‘make salient’?… Was it my tendency to try and disown bias? Was it me trying to give the impression of ‘objectivity’ when, in data analysis, particularly, it is the person of the researcher who is doing the ‘making sense’ of what is there, is doing the choosing of the category tag, etc?
So now, how do I understand the objectivity/subjectivity divide?
In research there is no capacity to separate the researcher (subject) from the research (object). Claims that this happens/ can happen are only claims.
And, further, when I am brought up against this issue, in drafting that is dealing with Engestrom’s Activity System Model (ex Leont’ev, ex Vygotsky), [and something which is new to me], how do I now understand how the ASM is seeing subject-object and via a mediating tool like language?
I have been encouraged, previously, to realise that writing is a complex task, according to Scardamalia and Bereiter, 1991 (‘Literate Expertise’).
Now that I am trying to help others to write, I am also finding out a bit more about that complexity. It has to do with the contextual nature of writing and meaning making.
Bateson, (1972/1969 ‘Double Bind’, in Steps to an Ecology of Mind), suggests that part of the capacity to be creative arises from somehow recognising cues from context .. and realising that in a certain context, something new is what is most appropriate.
It seems to me, as I try and suggest alternatives, of word choice, of sentence construction, for non-native English writers working on thesis drafting, and as I try to explain why what is written is not satisfying me, as a reader, the issue of a range of options of how else to write this, arises.
Those options need to be examined , and by using a range of evaluative criteria, in order to choose, or to design, which one, of the many ways of saying something, best serves the meaning the writer wants to convey.
No wonder, when I tried to construct a email, to share some of this, the email became more and more convoluted …
I needed to be with the writer, questioning, and finding out the meaning they intended,
I needed to help them to settle the choice on one issue before I/we could proceed to the next issue, whether it was immediately consequential, or not.
The choice of options, and all options chosen, needs to consolidate (or coalesce) around the purpose of the writing. This is what is meant by coherence – a context in which each sentence has its own inimitable part to play.
It seems that I wasn’t far wrong, as an eight-to-nine-year-old, in reading the lot to try and find the meaning of the new word/s, rather than using a dictionary as a first resort. I was working on understanding a new term, especially, in its context, as well as by its context.
5 Feb 2010: Now I find, from Kate Wilson’s thesis on EAP, that van Lier (2004) puts ‘context’ on the top of his list of ten principles for language learning. [No. Kate puts ‘context’ top; van Lier puts ‘relations’ top and ‘context’ second; though if we are strictly systemic, it willbe hard to order anything as top, because they are all interrelated, so that you cannot have-one-without-the-other.]
My practice involves helping.
The questions I ask, of my practice, to proceed into self-study, include:
1. How do I improve my practice?
2. How do I help you improve your learning?
3. How do I live my values more fully in my practice?
(from Jack Whitehead see http://www.bath.ac.uk/~edsajw/ )
I am beginning to recognise a persistent dilemma in undertaking this kind of self-study.
When my practice is with others, the process of my gathering data, for my focus, runs counter to ‘being there’ (presence a la John Heron), and being there for the process of helping. And yet, unless I can know more about my practice, about the nature and quality of my helping, how can I work at improving it?
For the one I help, it is their objective that is their primary focus. Asking them for information about my inputs is a distraction from that objective. When that is the case, to proceed with my agenda destroys the helping relationship, shifting the ground. When my focus moves from helping, I cease to be there, and cease to be effectively there for the one I am intending to help, and to keep on helping, and by being focused on their primary concerns and focus.
I can engage in relatively contemporaneous post-activity reflective work; gathering and documenting observations of the helping event. I can engage in post-action reflection, and document that.
When the helping relationship is ongoing, I can work with my post-activity reflective work, and undertake some pre-activity reflective work as I design my likely inputs, and I can document that.
I can engage in reflection-in-action, and especially when the action involves writing a response. It is more difficult to capture reflection-in-action in a live and synchronous interchange. That is when ‘being there’ is much more significant.
But asking for evaluative input, from the person being helped, long after the event of helping, when the pressure of their immediate and primary task concern has abated, is likely to be asking for what is not remembered, and if remembered is now far from being relatively contemporaneous. It may be coloured by layers of interactions since.
How then to find out the efficacy of my helping, from the other’s viewpoint (member checking aspect of validity)?
What does the literature have to tell me about this dilemma?
When I first noticed some of the dimensions of this dilemma, it was in respect of my professional development activity design.
(p.48-9 of my thesis
During that process, a number of challenges to, and dilemmas of, the design and its assumptions arose.
- [do people change, if and when they know their behaviour and what and how to improve?]
- [is self-disclosure of, for, and by the practitioner ethical, or does it amount to a power play involving ingratiation?]
- [when does a practitioner introduce challenges to assumptions?]
- [if a practitioner has a mental model that goes beyond evidence-based research, because it has been framed in a different knowledge system, but appears relevant to the problem, when and how does the practitioner introduce such a frame, so that it too can be open to consideration and examination?]
My second recognition of some of the dimensions of the dilemma related to trying to establish a cooperative peer research team. Here I noted (p.53)
Concurrent with the preparations to contact a group and begin the professional development activity, I explored the potential to participate, as a peer, in a group, with others working in a like area. It was, for me, a matter of congruence. I needed to be doing what I was asking others to do. I needed to find out, by doing, where it was easy for me, and where it was difficult for me.
While looking for such a group I was also aware of a dilemma: if my thesis was soundly based, then such a group would also need to build self-awareness, and in that group. For me to bring my material to such a group of peers would need me to move out of the peer role for at least the input of the relevant self-awareness materials.
When I first recognised the dilemma, in practice, I noted (p.152-3)
One change that developed during the activity was the awareness of being there (Heron’s indicator of whole person facilitation engagement (Heron, 1999)) and adding that to my focused reflective categories. To ‘be there’ I needed to disengage from my previous practice of in situ, in vivo, notetaking. My experience of operating as a participant-observer in the action design included the training and testing of my memory and recording capabilities. I reached the point where I recognised that my increased capabilities, together with being there, were sufficient to capture the material that is significant for ongoing practice issues, providing that the necessary records are made as soon as possible after. I could ‘give myself’ to being there, attending with all my being to the moment and the interactions, and very little would be lost in the later recording. Indeed, when my attention was distracted from being there, I often did not retain a good recollection of the distraction, let alone the other interactions operating at the same time.